Plotters is drawing library designed for rendering figures, plots, and charts, in pure rust. Plotters supports various types of back-ends,including bitmap, vector graph, piston window, GTK/Cairo and WebAssembly.
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- A new Plotters Developer's Guide is working in progress. The preview version is available at here.
- To try Plotters with interactive Jupyter notebook, or view here for the static HTML version.
- To view the WASM example, go to this link
- Currently we have all the internal code ready for console plotting, but a console based backend is still not ready. See this example for how to plotting on Console with a customized backend.
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Table of Contents
- Concepts by examples
To use Plotters, you can simply add Plotters into your
And the following code draws a quadratic function.
Trying with Jupyter evcxr Kernel Interactively
Plotters now supports integrate with
evcxr and is able to interactively drawing plots in Jupyter Notebook.The feature
evcxr should be enabled when including Plotters to Jupyter Notebook.
The following code shows a minimal example of this.
Interactive Tutorial with Jupyter Notebook
This tutorial is now working in progress and isn't complete
Thanks to the evcxr, now we have an interactive tutorial for Plotters!To use the interactive notebook, you must have Jupyter and evcxr installed on your computer.Follow the instruction on this page below to install it.
After that, you should be able to start your Jupyter server locally and load the tutorial!
And select the notebook called
Also, there's a static HTML version of this notebook available at the this location
Plotting in Rust
Rust is a perfect language for data visualization. Although there are many mature visualization libraries in many different languages.But Rust is one of the best languages fits the need.
Easy to use Rust has a very good iterator system built into the standard library. With the help of iterators,Plotting in Rust can be as easy as most of the high-level programming languages. The Rust based plotting librarycan be very easy to use.
Plotting on HTML5 canvas with WASM Backend
Plotters currently supports backend that uses the HTML5 canvas. To use the WASM support, you can simply use
CanvasBackend instead of other backend and all other API remains the same!
Boot disk mac os. There's a small demo for Plotters + WASM under
examples/wasm-demo directory of this repo.To play with the deployed version, follow this link.
What types of figure are supported?
Plotters is not limited to any specific type of figure.You can create your own types of figures easily with the Plotters API.
But Plotters provides some builtin figure types for convenience.Currently, we support line series, point series, candlestick series, and histogram.And the library is designed to be able to render multiple figure into a single image.But Plotter is aimed to be a platform that is fully extendable to support any other types of figure.
Concepts by examples
Plotters can use different drawing back-ends, including SVG, BitMap, and even real-time rendering. For example, a bitmap drawing backend.
Plotters uses a concept called drawing area for layout purpose.Plotters support multiple integrating into a single image.This is done by creating sub-drawing-areas.
Besides that, the drawing area also allows the customized coordinate system, by doing so, the coordinate mapping is done by the drawing area automatically.
In Plotters, elements are build blocks of figures. All elements are able to draw on a drawing area.There are different types of built-in elements, like lines, texts, circles, etc.You can also define your own element in the application code.
You may also combine existing elements to build a complex element.
To learn more about the element system, please read the element module documentation.
Besides the built-in elements, elements can be composed into a logic group we called composed elements.When composing new elements, the upper-left corner is given in the target coordinate, and a new pixel-basedcoordinate which has the upper-left corner defined as
(0,0) is used for further element composition purpose.
For example, we can have an element which includes a dot and its coordinate.
In order to draw a chart, Plotters need a data object built on top of the drawing area called
ChartContext.The chart context defines even higher level constructs compare to the drawing area.For example, you can define the label areas, meshes, and put a data series onto the drawing area with the helpof the chart context object.
To use the latest development version, pull https://github.com/38/plotters.git. In
Reducing Depending Libraries && Turning Off Backends
Plotters now supports use features to control the backend dependencies. By default,
SVGBackend are supported,use
default_features = false in the dependency description in
Cargo.toml and you can cherry-pick the backend implementations.
For example, the following dependency description would avoid compiling with bitmap support:
The library also allows consumers to make use of the
Palette crate's color types by default.This behavior can also be turned off by setting
default_features = false.
List of Features
This is the full list of features that is defined by
default_features = false to disable those default enabled features,and then you should be able to cherry-pick what features you want to include into
Plotters crate.By doing so, you can minimize the number of dependencies down to only
itertools and compile time is less than 6s.
The following list is a complete list of features that can be opt in and out.
- Drawing backends related features
|image_encoder||Allow ||image, rusttype, font-kit||Yes|
|gif_backend||Opt-in GIF animation Rendering support for ||gif||Yes|
|piston||Enable ||piston_window, rusttype, font-kit||No|
|cairo||Enable ||cairo-rs, rusttype, font-kit||No|
- Font manipulation features
|ttf||Allows TrueType font support||rusttype, font-kit||Yes|
- Coordinate features
|datetime||Eanble the date and time coordinate support||chrono||Yes|
- Element, series and util functions
|errorbar||The errorbar element support||None||Yes|
|candlestick||The candlestick element support||None||Yes|
|boxplot||The boxplot element support||None||Yes|
|area_series||The area series support||None||Yes|
|line_series||The line series support||None||Yes|
|histogram||The histogram series support||None||Yes|
|point_series||The point series support||None||Yes|
|deprecated_items||This feature allows use of deprecated items which is going to be removed in the future||None||Yes|
|debug||Enable the code used for debugging||None||No|
Why does the WASM example break on my machine ?
The WASM example requires using
wasm32target to build. Using
cargo buildis likely to use the default targetwhich in most of the case is any of the x86 target. Thus you need add
--target=wasm32-unknown-unknownin the cargoparameter list to build it.
How to draw text/circle/point/rectangle/.. on the top of chart ?
As you may realized, Plotters is a drawing library rather than a traditional data plotting library,you have the freedom to draw anything you want on the drawing area.Use
DrawingArea::drawto draw any element on the drawing area.
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The high-level plotting abstractions.
Coordinate system abstractions.
The data processing module, which implements algorithms related to visualization of data.Such as, down-sampling, etc.
The drawing utils for Plotter. Which handles the both low-level and high-leveldrawing.
Defines the drawing elements, the high-level drawing unit in Plotters drawing system
The module imports the most commonly used types and modules in Plotters
This module contains predefined types of series.The series in Plotters is actually an iterator of elements, whichcan be taken by
The style for shapes and text, font, color, etc.
A library that allows proc_macro function-like macros to be parsed usingthe combine parser combinator crate.
When writing a
#[proc_macro_derive] the input is Rust source code which iswell supported by the
syn crate. However, when writing a
#[proc_macro]macro, it is common to want to define a custom domain specific language.
This crate allows you to write a parser for your DSL using the
combineparser combinator library. It also preserves the source span informationin the parsed result such that
rustc can provide correct source locationsfor identifiers and literals that are re-used in the output.
Implementing a parser
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This is a basic example using base
parser! macro can help remove boilerplate.
Implementing a macro
A proc macro must be defined at the crate root within the
Utilities to generate diagnostic error messages.
Wrappers and transforms to around
A collection of parsers for
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A macro to remove the generics boilerplate when defining parsers.
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A word of Rust code, which may be a keyword or legal variable name.
A literal string (